Beeld en Geluid


Beeld en Geluid

The institute of Beeld en Geluid started as the audio-visual archive of the Dutch public radio and television stations. In time it has been merged with the film archive of the government information service, the Dutch film and science foundation, and recently with the Dutch Press Museum. It also acquired the audio archive of the Tropical Museum.

Tropical Museum

14 Tapes recorded by J.C. Anceaux. The tapes and tracks have been extensively described when they were still in the tropical museum but they appear without any description in the database of Beeld en Geluid. The CD Muo Remé is a compilation of these tapes and the tapes which were copied in the Museum of Ethnology. The Anceaux tapes are the largest collection of music from West Papua from that period.
There is also one tape that the catholic priest Pé Rozing, a student of Jaap Kunst, made for the Radio Omroep Nieuw Guinea. It should contain recordings from Indonesia, probably Flores, and from West Papua.
The Hobbel records, a set of 77 records, used for direct-to-disc recording by Jaap Hobbel on a tour through East Indonesia in 1948. He made also a short stop in Fakfak where he recorded a Christian choir, a flute and drum orchestra, and a number songs with and without a tifa.

The Jaap Kunst wax cylinder recordings. Most are from diverse areas in Indonesia but Jaap Kunst made himself in May 1929 67 wax cylinder recordings during the fourth Pan-Pacific congress in Weltevreden (nowadays Jakarta) of which 10 wax were with people from Sarmi, the Hollandia (Jayapura) area, Lake Sentani, Waropen coast and Japen Seroei. Two of these wax cylinders are missing in the Tropical Museum collection, one from Sesando and Warepu performed by the village headman Johan, and one from the Sentani lake from Orakanoai and Ahabra performed by Pore. Also missing are wax cylinder 118 a song from the Kaoh river, of the Upper Digul area, performed by Awumop and 119 a song from the Kaoh river, of the Upper Digul area, performed by Awumop.  In 1932 Jaap Kunst accompanied the head of the educational and religious department as a secretary on a tour through East Indonesia and he made in his spare free time recordings in Waigeo, an island of the Radja Ampat and on Manooi, a small island near Sorong, 7 wax cylinders. Further Jan Verschueren made on request and with a machine provided by Jaap Kunst recordings among the Marind Anim, Ye Amin and the Kanum Amin in total 33 wax cylinders. Nine of them are counted as part of the Kunst Indonesia series number 308-311 and 317-321. Of these 317-321 are missing in the Tropical Museum collection. Twenty-four are named the Verschueren series of which 2,6,10,12and 24 b are missing from Tropical Museum collection. Charles le Roux recorded in 1926 15 wax cylinders among the Kauwerawet (Mamberamo River, van Rees mountains) and 1 with the Ambonese soldiers singing about the Mamberamo expedition. They are counted as the Leroux 1926 series and one of them number 13 is missing from the Tropical Museum collection. In 1939 le Roux recorded 32 wax cylinders among the Ekari, Moni, Simori and the Uta. They are named the Leroux 1939 series and 11 are missing number 2, 17, 18, 19, 22, 25, 27o, 28, 29, 30 and 31. All these recordings are extensively described in the book Music in New Guinea of Jaap Kunst, Den Haag, Nijhoff, 1967. Most wax cylinders have been copied on Dat tapes by the Phonogramm-archiv in Berlin except the wax cylinders of le Roux and Verschueren. These Dat tapes became part of the Tropical Museum collection and are now also in Beeld en Geluid

Radio Archive

Beeld en Geluid has many radio broadcasts on New Guinea, although with the restriction that before the 1970’s only a very limited number of broadcasts were archived. Mainly news items of national and international importance and any broadcasts in which the Dutch royal family was involved. Also, even nowadays, rough material is not archived. Another problem are the wrong descriptions. The difference between West Papua or the former Dutch New Guinea and Papua New Guinea is not known and many items are situated in Papua New Guinea. Even one speaks of the decolonisation and independence of Irian Jaya instead of the Indonesia occupation of West Papua.

Before 1949

Still there are a lot of broadcasts. The eldest item is from 19-9-1935 an interview with Captain Cox and Captain Koppen about an airplane carting expedition in New Guinea. The next item is from 17-1-1936 and is a talk with a member of the expedition ‘Karsten, meant is the Carstensz expedition by Anton Colijn, Jean Jacques Dozy and Frits Wissel from 29-10-1936 till 24-12-1936. Then a speech by Queen Wilhelmina about the liberation of New Guinea from 10-5-1944 broadcasted by the BBC Radio Oranje. On 5-2-1947 there was a speech by President Soekawati on the form of government in East Indonesia and New Guinea.

The 1950’s

On 28-9-1950 a conversation between Drs. Jonker and Governor Van Waardenburg of New Guinea on possibilities in the region. On 24-1-1951 a report of the house of representatives’ session on the cabinet crisis following the New Guinea issue. The same day there was another item by the reporter Gerard Hoek on approaching cabinet crisis following the resignation of the minister Stikker on the New Guinea issue. The following day, 25-1-1951, political commentator P. Brijnen talked on the approaching cabinet crisis following the resignation of Minister Stikker on the New Guinea issue. In fact, this is a pattern that continued during the colonial period most radio items on New Guinea were items about the Dutch politics in the Netherlands and statements or reactions in where the word New Guinea appeared.
The first documentaries were made by Leo Pagano. He made a series of 3 documentaries that were broadcasted 1, 8 and 15 September 1957 as New Guinea 1 – introduction to country and labor, New Guinea 2 and New Guinea 3 – missionary labor. Leo Pagano worked that time for the KRO, the catholic broadcasting organisation and was he most known best for his coverage of football games. The Jaap Kunst audio archive used to have a tape with raw recordings from Leo Pagano from this period made in the Wissel Lakes, Bird Head area and the Island Salawati of the Radja Ampat. Unfortunately, the tape was lent out to an exhibition and never returned.

In 1959 There was a series of broadcasts on the expedition to the Star Mountains. The famous foreign reporter Alfred van Sprang joined the exhibition and a whole series of recordings exist on this subject varying from broadcasts as on 25-2-1959 a talk with L.D. Brongersma on the expedition to New Guinea to the Star mountains, or 20-4-1959 a radio phone call with L.D. Brongersma, leader of the exhibition, or 29-7-1959 Interview with the vice chairman of the expedition about insufficient funds. 4-9-1959 A compilation of the first 4 reports on the expedition to the Star Mountains made by Alfred van Sprang with Venema, Sneep, Anceaux and Pouwer.
But there are also raw recordings as 19-5-1959 expedition songs with Papuans, 30-5-1959 conservations with Papuans, and from the same date Sound of an engine of a boat on a river, and 30-5-1959 calling, screaming, 9-6-1959 Explanation of Vervoort on the Orion mountains and the making of roofing, and 30-7-1959 walking and cutting of a path. There are also a number of undated recordings as 2209-ONB-2308-01 which goes about the construction of a bivouac and a radio connection or a number of recordings now classified as sound effects from Papua New Guinea, as playing Papua children (GA4594) that could be of the same expedition.


The New Guinea crisis
As the New Guinea crisis between the Netherlands and Indonesia started to become more acute in 1960-1963 it became a radio news item almost every week and later in 1961 even every few days. Most items have survived of the programme “Radiokrant”, radio journal broadcasted by the NCRV. Interesting programmes from the time were: 3-15-1960 New Guinea not only a thorny issue but also an underdeveloped region by G.B.J. Hilterman with Th. H. Bot (deputy minister of the interior), F.H.V.D.  Wetering (president of the National New Guinea Committee), a Papua educator, a missionary and an agricultural engineer. 5-4-1961 Installation of the New Guinea Council in the Stadsgehoorzaal in Hollandia. 27-4-1961 The documentary New Guinea with shell music, war dances, catholic priest Karsten on missionary work, reverend Kamma on adaptation to modernity and the voice of a tribal leader. 27-5-1961 Unveiling of the monument of Jan van Eeckhout. (First president of New Guinea) known as the father of the Papua’s with a speech of the deputy minister of the interior Th.H. Bot. Also this description is erroneous. Jan van Eechoud was a civil servant in New Guinea, he became resident of New Guinea after the second world war, after the independence of Indonesia, deputy governor and wrote a number of books on the area. He died in New Guinea in 1958.  The monument is in this case is a monument of remembrance in his village of birth Horst which was indeed unveiled that day at 16:00 by Th. H. Bot, but also Jan van Baal and two board members of the Papua student society Kobe Oser were present. The monument was paid by donations of people from New Guinea as well as the Netherlands. There were also a series of weekly broadcasts in the Malay Sunday programs of the RONG starting the 21 Mai of that year on Jan van Eechoud. Unfortunately, none of them have been preserved.

22-10-1961 Papua’s want their own flag and national anthem. A talk with the lyricist of Hai Tanahku Papua Samuel Kijne and Papua students in the Netherlands singing this song. 21-11-1961 Michael Rockefeller missing in New Guinea. Interview with the acting governor G.P. Boendermaker. The dead of Michael Rockefeller stayed a news item for many years mainly because the continuous speculations on that he might have been killed by Asmat head hunters. 8-12-1961 Interview with Nicolaas Jouwe on his return from the United Nations. A broadcast of the Wereldomroep. 7-1-1962 Scientific expedition by Heinrich Harrer. 24-1-1962 Interview with a Dutch man in Manokwari on the exodus of Dutch people. 10-2-1962 interview with Professor van Baal on the right of self-determination of the Papua’s. 15-3-1962 Interview with the author Anthonie van Kampen made in New Guinea. 7-8-1962 Demonstration of Papua’s in Hollandia for their right of self-determination. 10-8-1962 Massive Papua demonstration against Sukarno and their right of self-determination.  15-8-1962 Transfer of New Guinea to Indonesia. Speech of prime minister J.E. de Quay, immediately after signing at the security council. 16-8-1962 Agreement Netherlands-Indonesia. Comments by New Guinea specialist C.S.J.J. Lagerberg, from the Hague divisions of the Dutch home front and from New York success of preventive diplomacy. 18-8-1962 press conference of Dr. van Royen and N. Jouwe. 22-09-1962 Governor P.J. Platteel (of New Guinea) on Papuanization and self-determination.

The exiles
After the transfer the number of news items sharply declined. Only from time to time the voices of the Papua refugees and their supporters could be heard. 1-5-1965 Interview with Nicolaas Jouwe on the Javanese migration to New Guinea. 20-8-1966 Statement of Nicolaas Jouwe on the necessity of a popular vote for Papua’s, the famine and the 500 or 600 political prisoners. 10-9-1966 New Guinea conference of “Door de eeuwen trouw” with Nicolaas Jouwe the right of self-determination and the politicians B. Roolvink-think of the interest of the people, J.A. Mommersteeg-don’t lose sight of reality, J.H. Scheps-requirement of application of article 22. 10-8-1967 Press conference of Nicolaas Jouwe. Accuses Indonesia of murder and oppression of New Guinea. 15-8-1977 the programme “Klankbord” West Irian 15 years Indonesian, a short interview with N. Jouwe (Papua leader). Indonesian rule purely colonialist.

Documentaries In the 1980’s broadcasts on New Guinea started to take the form of longer documentary broadcast7-01-1981 VILLA VPRO – a documentary about West Irian in which history, oppression, 150,000 disappeared Papuans and the resistance are discussed. With interviews with Jimmy Manusaway of the foundation “Werkgroep Nieuw-Guinea”, the Jouwe family, former administrative officer Lagerberg, Papua guerrilla fighter Jacob Aringaneng (threatened with expulsion), and Martha Meijer of Amnesty International’s Indonesia working group. Further commentary by journalist Anton Constandse on the imminent expulsion of Jacob Aringaneng, the campaigner for self-determination of West Papua Victor Kaisiepo and intended president of an independent New Guinea Nicolaas Jouwe. With music by the Black Brothers.
On 15-11-1981 in the programme “De andere wereld van zondagmorgen” of the broadcasting organisation IKON started a 6-part series of documentaries on New Guinea or the remarkable history of the last Dutch bastion in the East. Part 1: Dutch inheritance and duty, or how New Guinea had to be turned into a model state. Life and work between 1950 and 1962 of civil servants, missionaries and soldiers. Conversations with C.S.J.J. Lagerberg (administrative officer), S.L.J. van Waardenburg (governor), Jacques Grijpink (head of Radio Broadcasting New Guinea), R. den Haan (administrative officer), J.J. van Baal (former governor) and A. Nuis (soldier, teacher). Part 2 was broadcasted on 22-11-1981 with the title “The terror of virtue”. The work of the catholic and protestant mission and the last activities of the Dutch army. Conversations with Father Terrero, Father Karsten, C.S.J.J. Lagerberg (administrative officer), J.J.van Baal (governor), A. Nuis (soldier, teacher). Historical reports on an underground Indonesian radio station, returning civilians and soldiers and general A.V.v.d. Wall Bake speaking to soldiers. Part 3 was broadcasted on 29-11-1981 with the title “A Dutch beacon in South East Asia”. Resentment of a lost empire. The reactions of the political Netherlands after the independence of Indonesia. Conversations with the politicians M. van der Goes van Naters (PvdA), W. Drees (former Prime Minister), J.H. van Royen (Ambassador in the USA), Th.M.J. de Graaf (KVP), C.P.M. Romme (KVP), M.A.M. Klompe (KVP), J.M.A.H. Luns (Minister of Foreign Affairs), J.L. Heldring (journalist), J. de Kadt (PvdA) and A.H. Nasution Indonesian general. Part 4 broadcasted on 6-12-1981 was a portrait of J.M.A.H. Luns (former foreign minister). His unpublished correspondence with C.P.M. Romme (KVP). Commentary by W. Drees (PvdA), mrs. M.A.M. Klompe (KVP), J.L. Heldring (journalist), Th.M.J. de Graaf (KVP), H.J.A. Hoffland (journalist). Self-determination for the Papuans. This term became keyword. The noble mask, behind which the less attractive motifs were hidden.  Part 5 doesn’t seem to have survived. Part 6 was broadcasted on 20-12-1981 with the title “The end in sight”. M.A.M. Klompe (KVP) about US interference, the visit of R.F. Kennedy, E.H. Toxopeus (minister of foreign affairs) about Plan-Bunker, J.H.van Royen (ambassador to the USA). Reaction of Prince Bernhard on the accusation that he contributed to the squandering of New Guinea. J.M.A.H. Luns (minister of foreign affairs) “The Kennedys have undoubtedly abandoned the Netherlands.” J.L. Heldring (journalist), M.v.d. Goes van Naters (PvdA), W. Drees (former prime minister), H.J.A. Hofland (journalist): “The main motive of New Guinea politics was that we wanted to bully Sukarno.” Part 7 was broadcasted on 27-12-1981 with the title “West Irian now”. C.S.J.J. Lagerberg (former government official), F. Habatka (cultural anthropologist) on the influence of business on the Papuan population. E. Utrecht (Indonesia expert) about resistance organization O.P.M. (Organization Papua Merdeka) and the pursuit of a Melanesian Federation, about this also P.P. van Lelieveld (foundation Oecumenische Hulpverlening aan Kerken en Vluchtelingen). W.F. Wertheim (sociologist) on the relationship between Indonesians and Papuans and on the views of Luns.

Another trend was the number of remembrances of people with a certain fame who had been involved with West Papua.
4-3-1983 The programme “Oogluik”. An interview with Papua leader Nicolaas Jouwe (1923), who has been fighting for a free Papua since the 1960s. 11-3-1983 “Het zout in de pap” Aad Nuis in conversation with F. Springer (pen-name of Carel Jan Schneider). Springer talks about his work as a civil servant and diplomat, about his literary work and about the relationship between the two. 28-9 and 5-10-1986 “Oogluik” A diptych on New Guinea with interviews with the Papuans Nicolaas Jouwe and Fred Korwa about daily life on the archipelago and the changes as a result of decolonization by the Netherlands. 17-8-1988 “Een leven lang”, an interview with the 79-year-old emeritus professor of cultural anthropology and former governor of New Guinea, Jan van Baal, on the occasion of the publication of the second part of his autobiography ‘Ontglipt verleden’. Topics of discussion include his work as civil servant in New Guinea from 1936 to 1942, his stay in Japanese internment camps during which he developed his own sociology of religion, his period in New Guinea as governor from 1953-1958 and his work as professor of cultural anthropology at the University of Utrecht from 1958-1973. 7-9-1989 As part of the oral history of the broadcasting organisations an interview was made but not broadcasted with Joop Arends, radio technician in the Dutch East Indies, New Guinea and at the NRU-NOS, about his work in Indonesia and in New Guinea at, among others, the ROIO (Radio Broadcasting in Transition Time) and the RRI (Radio Republica) Indonesia). Then about his activities for the NRU by various broadcasters and the collaboration with Paul de Waart by copying archive material. 19-1 and 26-1-1990 “Tussen toen en nu “, a two-part portrait of Jan van Baal. He talks in the first part about the administrative positions he held as a young man in pre-war New Guinea, about his contacts with the Papuan population and the peculiarities of that population. In the second part he discusses the ‘New Guinea question’, his governorship from 1953 to 1958 and the need for a ‘cultural change’ among the Papuans. He believed at the time that New Guinea could become independent in 1980. 4-2, 11-2 and 18-2-1991 New Guinea, a triptych about the history of the former Dutch colony of New Guinea. In this part interviews with former governor of New Guinea Jan van Baal, father and missionary Arie Vriens and with Papuan leader Nicolaas Jouwe, about the clash between Dutch culture and the culture of the Papuans. In the second part Papuan leaders Nicolaas Jouwe and Victor Kaisiepo, among other things about the ‘New Guinea issue’ and the current liberation struggle of the Papuans against the Indonesian government. The third part examines the environmental problems in New Guinea and the problems of the Papuans in the Netherlands. 3-11-1992 “Met mij valt te praten” Interview with journalist Joop van Zyl about his youth, his broadcasting career, his current work on the NOS news and as a commentator at music events. He says that he went to New Guinea in 1956 and there first became acquainted with journalism. 8-5-1993 “De Schrijftafel”. Interview with writer and ex-diplomat F. Springer (pseudonym of CJ Schneider) about the situation he encountered at his first government post in New Guinea and about his later visit to that country with the VPRO -radio program “Het spoor terug”. Other topics of discussion are his stay and experiences in Iran and Bangladesh, the books in which he processed those experiences and the usefulness of development work.

Colonial heritage
17-6 and 24-6-1994 “Argos” with a diptych about Attorney General R.A. Gonsalves who, in the period from 1956-1962, worked as a civil servant in the Baliem valley in New Guinea. Revelations based on quotes from official reports and excerpts from the diary of the then Attorney General Gerard Von Meyenfeldt, of the atrocities, attempted murders and torture by Gonsalves against the Papuans in the Baliem Valley. Including an excerpt from a speech by Gonsalves in which he argues for a nationally operating attorney general to fight organized crime. In the secondpart of a diptych it is revealed how it was possible that criminal prosecutions were not initiated. With reactions from those involved, including the widow of Von Meyenfeld, civil servant Sietse van der Werf, former police commissioner Van Klinken and a former clerk of the Court in Hollandia. Former Interior Minister Toxopeus says “I don’t remember this at all”.
This became a famous case and on 1-5-1998  In “Uit het nieuws” a programme with interviews with a person who has been in the news for a long time there is an interview with Gonsalves. He discusses his nicknames Speedy Gonsales, Godzelvus and Gunsalvo, the qualifications people attribute to him and his ties to the CDA. Subsequently, in response to an HA fragment, he discusses the crisis of confidence between Minister Sorgdrager of Justice and her officials, the reorganization of the Public Prosecution Service led by Attorney General Docters van Leeuwen, Sorgdrager’s functioning within the Board of Prosecutors General and the resignation of Docters van Leeuwen as a result of his support for Attorney General Steenhuis in his conflict with Minister Sorgdrager. He then goes on to address the accusation in the radio program ‘Argos’ which turned out to be false, the political unrest in New Guinea during his term of office, the fact that his successor Schneider called him a “trigger-hungry man” and the decolonization of New Guinea. Also, on 8-10-1999 “Argos” an interview with Gonsalves on the occasion of the publication of his memoirs. A large part of Gonsalves’ memoirs is about his period as a civil servant in the former Dutch New Guinea (1956-1962). His crackdown on the ‘pacification’ of the Baliem Valley has twice discredited him. First in 1960 and again in 1994, when the Argos program released classified documents about the 1960 affair. In his book, Gonsalves calls those Argos broadcasts a “publicity balloon” and “deliberate damage to my reputation.” Topics of discussion are: Gonsalves’ appointment as a civil servant in New Guinea in the 1950s; his choice of a government post in the troubled Baliem Valley in 1958; his mission to pacify the area ravaged by tribal warfare and massacres; his punitive measures against the disturbances in the area; his exceptional function, which was characterized by a mixture of administrative and judicial power; the success of the pacification; the charges of vandalism, violence, assault and manslaughter that he faced in 1960; the 1960 judicial inquiry into his alleged atrocities against the Papuan people and which, according to Gonsalves, is based on false testimonies; his objections to the 1994 Argos broadcasts.

Other stories

29-6-1994 “Het gesprek” Interview with Miss H.T. Spoor-Dijkema, widow of General Spoor, military commander in the Dutch East Indies. She talks about her childhood (“I always wanted to go to Indie”); her marriage to a civil servant and her stay in New Guinea and Australia during the Second World War; her work with the NEFIS (Netherland Forces Intelligence Service) where she met her second husband Simon Spoor; her life with him until his sudden death in 1949 and her radio work for the armed forces program of the NIROM. Spoor-Dijkema speaks of “impotent anger” about the current reporting about the police actions and says he is writing a book that “should put an end to all those fairy tales”. She then discusses the question of how she built a new life after her return to the Netherlands. 12-4-1997 “Reflector”. An interview with L.J. de Vries, who has been appointed professor of Bible translation at the Free University in Amsterdam since 1 March 1997. De Vries tells about his experiences in Irian Jaya (New Guinea) with the translation of Dutch Bible texts into a Papuan language. In addition, De Vries examines the question of whether the theological background of the translator plays a role in his/her Bible translations. 27-12-1997 “Kruispunt”. A portrait of two Dutch missionaries at the end of their active mission career. Interviews with Stephanie Maas, who has worked as a medical missionary in Burma and India since the early 1950s, and Franciscan Herman Münninghoff, who has been working in Irian Jaya for 50 years, the last 25 years as a bishop.4-3 and 11-3-1999 Toegoe, a colonial legacy. A two-part documentary about the past of the Toegoenese, who form a unity through their shared music, faith and history. The program maker visits the village of Toegoe, nowadays a kampong of the city of Jakarta in Indonesia, together with a Dutch family that is going to visit relatives. Jack Pentjal, the father of the family, is originally from Toegoe and reminisces about his life in the isolated village. His daughter explains her experiences during the visit. Also, it includes a visit to Irian Jaya (formerly New Guinea) with the Dutch interpreter Monique Soesman and interviews with Toegoenese refugees at the time. Discussed are daily life in the village; the krontjong music that is made there; the Bersiap period, when the Toegoenese felt threatened because they felt connected to the Netherlands; the Christian faith that the inhabitants adhere to; the flight of many Toegoenese to New Guinea in 1950 as a result of the transfer of sovereignty; life there; and the interconnectedness of Toegoenese wherever they may be. In the second part the program maker visits the former Hollandia, the capital of what was then New Guinea, to which many Toegoenese fled in 1950. There are interviews with Toegoenese who fled at the time and visits to the Dutch shelters Wezep and Westerbork, where Toegoenezen and a former neighbor have their say. Also, a report from Suriname, where the Toegoenese ended up in 1962, with interviews with Surinamese and Toegoenese. They talk about the handing over of New Guinea to Indonesia and the consequences for the Indo-Dutch; the possibility for the Toegoenese to live and work in Suriname; the reception in a barracks in Wezep and in Westerbork; the arrival and the disappointing existence on the plantation Slootwijk in Suriname; the repatriation to the Netherlands with the help of the Toegoenese contacts at the Evangelische Broedergemeente EBG). Illustrated with musical performances by the Toegoenese.

The 21st century25-1-2000 “Kilometer 12” In this episode a documentary about Wim van der Kouwen’s return to the former New Guinea, where he and his wife established himself as a government doctor in 1957 and started a leprosy clinic in the village of Sorong. After Indonesia occupied West Papua in 1963, he had to leave the clinic in a hurry. There are interviews with Van der Kouwen and his wife during a visit to the Indonesian capital Jakarta and during their tour of Irian Jaya, including a visit to the clinic and their former home in Sorong. They talk about Van der Kouwen’s interest in the history of the city of Jakarta; the emotional reunion with Irian Jaya and various former colleagues and acquaintances; Van der Kouwen’s little knowledge of leprosy when he first encountered it; the good contact he had with the local population; the success of modern leprosy control; the importance of his faith; the current conditions on Irian Jaya; the daily life of the family in Sorong; Sorong’s abrupt and difficult farewell in 1963. Also, in the original Dutch description the area was again described as Papua New Guinea and it was said that the doktor has to leave in 1963 because of the independence of Irian Jaya. 8-2-2000 “Landgenoten”, interview with Gerda Kaisiepo (born 1952 in Hollandia, Dutch New Guinea), daughter of Marcus Kaisiepo, the 86-year-old president-in-exile of New Guinea. Topics of discussion are the flight of the Kaisiepo family to the Netherlands, after the annexation of West Papua by Indonesia in 1962; their living circumstances in Hollandia; the second-class citizens who were the Papuans; the family’s first impressions after arriving at Schiphol; some memories of her school days in the Netherlands; the Indonesian-rigged referendum in West Papua in 1969; her feeling that she does not belong in the Netherlands; the activities in the Netherlands of the Papua resistance organization OPM, of which her father is a representative; the right to self-determination desired by the Papuans; her unmarried motherhood; the language she speaks with her parents, Malay; her desire to return to her homeland one day. 15-8-2000 “De radiodag van Marjoke Roorda”, the spoken memoirs of Papua leader Marcus Wonggor Kaisiepo, who died on 18-05-2000 in Delft. Kaisiepo tells (in old Malay, with translation by daughter Gerda) about the way in which New Guinea was handed over to Indonesia on 15 August 1962, about the dubious role that the Dutch government played in this, in his opinion, and about the consequences of the annexation of New Guinea by Indonesia for its Papua people. 22-8-2000 “De VPRO radio verassingsdag van Ton van der Graaf” with the writer Tijs Goldschmidt about the culture and history of the Asmat people in New Guinea and the Papuans’ struggle for an independent state and with tropical doctor Willem Visser about his experiences in New Guinea in the 1950’s, the Papuan independence struggle, the economic and social backwardness of the Papuans and the logging of the rainforest in Indonesia. 6-12-2001 “Een leven lang”, an interview with Jean Jacques Dozy, professor of Geology at Delft University of Technology from 1968 to 1976. The topic of discussion is the 1936 expedition to the snow-capped peaks of the Carstensz Mountains in New Guinea. He participated as an employee of the Batavian Petroleum Company in New Guinea, together with the son of former Prime Minister Colijn. He also speaks about the role of oil in past world politics and in contemporary wars and conflicts. 1-11-2003 “Met het oog op morgen” Interview with Jan Sneep, former administrative officer in New Guinea, and John J. Staats, then assistant zoologist, about the 1959 expedition of sixteen scientists to the Star Mountains in New Guinea. The expedition, to which two exhibitions are devoted, was organized by the Royal Dutch Geographical Society, which has been in existence for 130 years. 17-12-2003 “Maak dit volk weerbaar” More than fifty years ago Piet Merkelijn worked as Head of Local Government in the village of Ayamaru in New Guinea. In this documentary, his grandson and documentary maker Jelle Wijkstra follows in his grandfather’s footsteps and returns to the region. He goes in search of the people who knew his grandfather. He asks the Papuans about their memories of the Dutch era and rediscovers the roots of their striving for independence.23-3-2006 “1 OP DE MIDDAG”, a portrait of 94-year-old Father Tom Tetteroo on the occasion of the publication of his memoir entitled ‘Diary on toilet paper’. Tetteroo was a missionary in New Guinea from 1937 to 1992. There he experienced the Japanese occupation during the Second World War and the decolonization process after the war. 5-3-2007 “PLEIN 5” an interview with journalist Joop van Zijl about making radio in New Guinea.

The last decade
10-6-2015 “NTR academie”. A conversation with historian Hans Meijer about the last colonial war that the Netherlands waged in Southeast Asia, on New Guinea. The conflict between the Netherlands and the still young republic of Indonesia was initially fought out on a political and diplomatic level. From 1960 it became a real military conflict, including frigates, the Marine Corps and the aircraft carrier Hr.Ms. Karel Doorman. The issue of New Guinea is described in the biography that Hans Meijer wrote about Herman van Roijen together with Rimko van der Maar: ‘Herman van Roijen, a diplomat of class.’ 19-5-2016 “RADIO 1 Vandaag” Piet Zevenbergen (75) spent the most important phase of his life in Dutch New Guinea: he grew up there, among the local Papuan population. “It has shaped me into who I am today, and instinctively I belong there, on that beautiful island.” He tells about the beautiful rivers, the walks to the stream, the friendly people and the pastry shop where he worked. “A divine paradise.” Zevenbergen came to the island with his parents as a twelve-year-old boy. His father was in the military and was there to help the country and its people on the road to independence. This was necessary because New Guinea was threatened by Indonesia, which, according to Zevenbergen, wanted to claim the land because of its riches. The Netherlands did well to ‘help’: a parliament was set up, a national anthem, and a flag. Zevenbergen never thought to leave the country. But after ten years he and his parents had to leave, in 1962. In the same year, under pressure from the United Nations, the Netherlands handed over the area to Indonesia. The Dutch were forced to leave the area. Since then, Jakarta has been in charge. But it is a disgraceful colonial regime. The Papuans became, and still are, second-class citizens on their own island. Indonesia eagerly uses the valuable minerals that the New Guinean soil is rich in. “They are killing the population, there have been sterilization programs for women and nobody cares.” It hurts Zevenbergen to see what is happening to the country where he grew up. “My heart is spinning,” he says. From the Netherlands he tries with the Pro Papua Foundation to draw attention to the horrific situation in New Guinea. He is co-founder of the foundation, which stands up for the rights of the Papuas. “We do what the Papuas want, we are committed to their interests. And if they want to belong to Indonesia, fine.” Zevenbergen believes that the Netherlands is still responsible for the situation of the local population. From 1949 to 1962, New Guinea was an overseas territory of the Netherlands. Indonesia became independent from the Netherlands in 1949, unlike New Guinea. That remained an overseas territory of the Netherlands from 1949 to 1962. Our government’s motives for this varied: on the one hand, New Guinea could be used to exert influence in the region; on the other hand, in this way the Netherlands could help to develop New Guinea and emancipate the local population. At the time, there was a strong feeling that this was our ‘obligation’ after the experiences with Indonesia as a Dutch colony. The government had to prove that the Netherlands had not failed as a colonial power. 29-1-2017 “Radio Doc” It is 60 years ago that on July 16, 1957, the first Dutch air disaster involving the Neutron aircraft took place in Biak, New Guinea. On board tropical doctor Dick Leiker with his wife and four young children. He is on his way to the Netherlands to do his PhD on leprosy. Doctor Leiker, along with ten other passengers, is rescued by Papuas, who rowed the scorching sea with their prahus. The dramatic loss of his family did not stop him from dedicating his life to the fight against leprosy and in 1967 he and others founded the Leprosy Foundation, which celebrates its 50th anniversary this year. The accident was never talked about again. His son Dick, from a second marriage, only finds out years later that his father had already lived a whole life in New Guinea before he was born. In 2012, he visits the places where his father lived and worked. He is taken in as a prodigal son by people who still knew his father and who have waited 55 years for a sign of life from Dr. Leiker.